Three Kinds of Flow / Three Stations
Tsukuba Express / Kashiwanoha-Campus Station 2004/5
Tsukuba is a new academic and research city located about 50 km north of Tokyo. It is a new community, completed in 1985 with the aim of consolidating national research institutes and relieving congestion in the capital city of Tokyo.
A new railway, the 58-km Tsukuba Express, will open in 2005 to provide a direct link between Tsukuba and Tokyo and to promote urban development along the railway line. Kashiwanoha Campus Station is one of 20 stations to be built for this new line. The natural science departments of two universities are located nearby, along with a large park, leading to a proposal to consider the town as a whole as an open campus. In Japanese, the station name stands for "Oak Leaf ".
Two Screens / Science and Nature
station is configured with the external skin of the architecture
enveloping the engineering structure. The architectural structure is
independent from the engineering elements. This hybrid structure, as it is
called, is a new configuration not found in conventional railway stations.
The consequent overall form is enclosed by two screens which are
independent of the engineering structure.
the important place of the natural science departments in the community,
some reference to the natural sciences was called for.
Flow Design / Conventional Methods
There are two types of flow. One is stratified flow, and the other is turbulent flow. Therefore, one of the screens in this station was dedicated to turbulent flow and the other to stratified flow. (Turbulent flow is used here in a metaphoric sense, since there are no actual eddies.)
expected, the stratified flow is a regular pattern, but the turbulent flow
consists of free 3-dimensional curves without any simple regularity.
One method is manual trial and error.
conducting various studies, choose the form that seems best.
other method is to utilize an external law of nature.
Both of these methods are well known and neither is new.
both, it makes no difference whether or not a computer is used.
Induction Design �Wth generation : program of Flow
I decided to make this the next stage in the ongoing Induction Design research project. The goal is to obtain, like magic, something good without defining in advance what good is.
The process is roughly as follows.
1- The designer makes several sketches and passes them on to the program after evaluating them himself.
2- The program infers the designer's intent and proposes sketches which (it expects) will receive an even higher evaluation.
3- The designer evaluates the proposals and returns them to the program.
The process is easy to describe, but by no means easy to execute.
key point is that there is no definition of what constitutes good.
This method was tested in the design of the Web Frame for the Iidabashi subway station, which was the world's first architecture generated automatically by a computer program solving conditions. But the computer program for this area alone was still inadequate. This stage focuses on this area.
example, one glance at a student project is enough to tell whether it is
good or bad. But there is no easy answer to the question "What makes
good things good ?"
first step, as an approach to handing vagueness, was to develop a program
using neural networks and genetic algorithms. This was done under the
auspices of the IT Project of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
Absence of the Whole / Rules of Parts Create the Whole
The wave curves are made from Glass-fibre Reinforced Concrete (GRC). Units are sized 5m by approx. 2m, and attached to the structure at intervals of 5m. Interior and exterior walls are opposite faces of the same unit. The exterior side is painted with a coating that causes grime to dissolve naturally.
units are made with molds. Cost considerations limited the number of molds
that could be made, so the design could use only a limited number of unit
variations. Of course adjacent units also had to flow into one another, so
that it was not possible to achieve variety by combining any unit with any
peripheries of these screens are handled as if cut away.